Posts by: Staff Writer

Why do Christians Need to Reach out to Muslims?

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Dr. Cynthia tells Christians in this video that they need to open their eyes to the Muslim and other immigrants around them. We need to reach out to them with the gospel, in word and in deed.         Why? She gives us three important reasons:

  1. Jesus told us to in what is called “The Great Commission.” If we are truly Christians we will follow the main two commands that Jesus gave us before he left earth: to Love and to Share his message.
    • “Then Jesus came to them and said, ‘All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.’”  Matthew 28:18-20
  2. The Bible tells us that God moves people around to make it easier for them to get to know him. 
    • “…he marked out their appointed times in history and the boundaries of their lands. God did this so that they would seek him and perhaps reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from any one of us.” Acts 17:26, 27
    • In the West now, Christians don’t need to go overseas, learn a foreign language, risk getting killed or even getting parasites to share Jesus with people from around the world. God sent them to us to make it easy for us. If we fail to obey Jesus by reaching out when it is this convenient, how will we be able to face our master in heaven?
  3. If the gospel does not change the immigrants, the immigrants will change the West. Since immigration law changed in 1965, immigrants have been flooding into America from countries that are not familiar with the gospel and the God of Love. They bring worldviews very different from that of Christians. Their worldviews differ even that of those who are not Christians, but were raised in the West and hold some Christian values.
    • Without realizing it, the very reasons that Muslims and others come to the West will change as their worldviews become incorporated there.

What Should Americans Know About Muslims? – with Former Muslim Christina

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In this video, Dr. Cynthia interviews Christina, an Arab woman from the Middle East who now lives in the West. As a Christian who was once a Muslim, Christian is in a good position to understand the differences in Western and Muslim cultures and advise Christians on what to expect when they reach out to connect with Muslims.

Christina makes 5 important points for us to keep in mind:

  1. Immoral: People who come to the West from Muslim countries think that we are immoral. They get this idea from Hollywood and politics. In their culture there are three tabus, three subjects that they must not talk about: religion, sex, and politics. She says there is a “red line” that they do not want to cross. The West freely discusses all three of these. That makes it seem to them that we have no boundaries, that anything goes. And so we are immoral.
  2. Brainwashed: Since childhood Muslims have been told over and over that Islam is true and the only way. They are right. The West is wrong. She says that to them it is as solid a fact as science and mathematics. It was drilled into them every day of school for 12 or more years. It is very difficult for Muslims to think outside of this worldview.
  3. Distrust: Muslims don’t trust us – or anyone – or even God. Christina says that even their Prophet Mohammed did not trust God to take him to heaven. She says that they invented the word “Islamophobia” as a reflection of their own distrust: they don’t trust us, so they think we don’t trust them either. If they get to know that you are reliable, this may change.
  4. Afraid of Surprises: Muslims don’t want surprises, not even good ones. They prefer to stay in the comfortable darkness than to come out and be hurt again.
  5. No hope: Muslims have learned to live with no hope. They have been hurt and disappointed many times. If you say, “God loves you,” they won’t believe it. Their culture exaggerates expressions of love to the point that they are meaningless. For example, if you meet a casual acquaintance you might say, “I miss you so much ‘you bury me,’” meaning I would die for you.

What Are Apologetics and Polemics?

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Many Christians now are interested in apologetics. Others don’t know what the term means. Does it mean we are apologizing for being Christians? Absolutely not!
Even fewer know what polemics are, although many practice it.

In this video we explain that simply put:

  • Apologetics – is defending your beliefs
  • Polemics – is finding problems with other people’s beliefs

Apologetics differ depending on who is attacking your faith. For example, if you are defending the Christian faith from atheists you will present different material than if you are defending against Muslim attacks. So, it is good to learn defenses which are specific to the kind of people you are having discussions with.

Polemics also differ depending on to whom you are speaking. The challenges you would give atheists are not necessary for Muslims. Finding fault with Islam and other religions usually requires a bit of study to understand what they believe. First, learn how it differs from your beliefs. Then, look into things they believe that contradict what you believe and find reasonable ways you can question those or challenge them.

Many people who are brave enough to share their faith only want to talk about God’s love and the gospel. Sometimes that is enough to bring a person to Christ. But now, with people from so many backgrounds living in the West, we need to both explain the gospel in a way that makes sense to them, defend it against their stumbling blocks. Beyond that as Brother E who trained Dr. C says that when we are reaching Muslims,

“Sooner or later we need to expose Islam and challenge them. It is so difficult for Muslims to leave Islam that they must be totally convinced that it is wrong before they have the courage.”

As we often explain, our activities with Muslims, and anyone, fall into three categories:

  1. Building Bridges
  2. Sharing Truth
  3. Challenging Falsehood

Our videos and study guides show you in detail how to do these things. We prefer to do them in that order: build, share, and then challenge. If you have a good bridge, or relationship with someone, you can say almost anything without causing trouble if you say it in love. But there are a few settings where the order changes, such as in a debate or online.

Whatever the setting however, be sure to pray before you do any of these. Remember, when you are arguing to defend the Christian faith or challenge Islam that God loves everyone. He loves them despite the foolish or evil things that they believe. We need to represent God well, as his ambassadors, regardless of the setting we are in.

How to Make Your Personal Apologetic Testimony (PAT)

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In this video, Dr. Cynthia teaches a workshop on How to Make a Personal Apologetic Testimony, a PAT. We think that after The Path of the Prophets gospel method for Muslims, this could be the most important thing that we share with you. It presents a very simple and practical way to explain the reasons for what you believe.

Apologetics defend a faith – they are the reasons for belief. A PAT, or Personal Apologetic Testimony, is just that, It is your personal testimony of why you believe what you believe. It provides a framework for the reasons that support your faith.

In our post-Christian culture, a testimony of how good the gospel makes us feel is not enough to convince others. Our feeling is only a part of the story. We need to give strong reasons for our beliefs – reasons that are “objective.” This means that they are outside our personal experience. These reasons can be more convincing to other people, because they are not based on our personal feelings..

Apologetics and polemics (criticizing other faiths) have become popular in Christian circles, especially those looking at Islam. This is good. Christians find an abundance of evidence that supports their belief that Christianity is true and Islam is false.

But Dr. C is concerned that believers may become overwhelmed with information from many sources. It won’t automatically be organized in their heads. They may become confused. This confusion can keep them from effectively using what they have learned.

Making a PAT is a way for Christians to turn what they have learned into a powerful tool. They can practice using this tool (“get it down pat”) and become confident with it.

Parts of a PAT, Personal Apologetic Testimony

It is easy to make a PAT. All it takes is a little thought and organization. Once you have done it, you will be more confident and powerful in sharing your faith.

A PAT has three parts: personal, apologetic, and testimony.

  1. Personal – To open your PAT you share a little about yourself. This helps you connect with your listeners. It also provides a basis for why certain reasons appeal to you.
  2. Apologetic – Here you list the 2 or 3 top reasons that you believe (1 or 4 are options too).
  3. Testimony – You briefly conclude, with a phrase that says why you believe these.


We explained above that a testimony based solely on your personal experience is not enough. But you can use who you are to make your reasons powerful.

For example, Dr. Cynthia has a science background. Knowing that helps people understand why certain reasons for the existence of God work well with her.

But you don’t need to be a doctor. One of two sentences about you and your experience could be enough to give your reasons context. For example, for an average Christian interested in Islam you could say,

“I’ve been studying Islam and Christianity for several years. Here are the reasons that I am still Christian.”

Apologetic: Reasons we Believe

We all have reasons for what we believe. They may not be good reasons, but they are reasons. For example, you might believe something only because you were raised with it, without examining it or other ideas. For most of the Muslim world this is the case. But many in the West also simply believe what they were raised with, whether it be atheism or nominal Christianity. Or we may be confused about what to believe.

If we only believe something because our parents or culture told us to, when we are challenged by situations or other beliefs we may become confused.  A deeper belief will be thought out and have reasons.

The reasons that we believe God exists are different from the reasons that we believe in Christianity and not Islam, or not Buddhism. This means that we could have different PATs for different situations. For example, Dr. C has different PATs for atheism and Islam.

We encourage everyone to look for truth. In other videos we talk about ways to find it. We also encourage you to think logically. Believe based on what, after consideration, honestly makes best sense to you.

Personalizing Reasons

True facts are objective: that means that they are not based on personal opinion. However, the facts that appeal most to each of us are based on our opinions, which in turn are based who we are, our experiences and personalities.

For your PAT we encourage you to think about what reasons you find most convincing. Choose 3 of them. Then let’s put them into a PAT!

The Testimony

Usually we think of a “testimony” as the story of how a person came to believe in Christ. But in the context of a PAT, the testimony is simply the conclusion of why these reasons work for you.

In psychology we learn that people argue about whether something is true, but they can’t argue with how it makes you feel. So, in the testimony part of the PAT, you are not claiming that the reasons you present are true. They could argue with that. You are stating that the reasons convince you. They can’t argue that.

Preference: An optional part of your testimony is including your preference. This is where you can add your feeling (pathos). But this should not be the main part of your PAT.  If you include this you would say something like,

“I do believe that the reasons supporting Christianity are stronger than Islam. But if they were just equal, I actually prefer that God is love and women are not sex slaves in heaven.”

They can’t fault you for having a preference. Everyone has preferences whether they admit it or not. For many people their preference is simply to do what is easy, to go along with their family or culture.

The key to stating a preference is to keep it in the right order and perspective. It is subjective, meaning related to you not them. Your objective reasons need to be foremost, because you don’t want them to say that your belief is just about your feelings.

One more thing: consider who you are talking with. Some people have more head needs than heart needs. Others have greater heart needs. For example, if talking to Muslim women who have been abused you might emphasize the love of God more.

Conclusion: We like to conclude with a one sentence testimony that states something like,

“And so, I believe that the weight of the evidence favors Christianity over Islam.”


“To me, these reasons are more convincing than the reasons to believe Islam.”

Every faith can make good points. In a PAT we don’t get sidetracked into an argument that says they have no good points, or no evidence.

In the PAT you are claiming that the reasons you present are convincing to you. They can’t argue with that.

They might not agree with you, but they can not argue that you find the evidence convincing. That is the message that they will take away. If you have connected well through the Personal part of your PAT, they will take your PAT seriously.

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Did Jesus die on the cross? Part 1 with Mike Licona

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Did Jesus die on the Cross? Part 1 is a video clip where expert on the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus, Dr. Mike Licona, discusses the evidence that Jesus died on the cross. One of the top four disagreements that Muslims have with Christians is whether or not Jesus died on the cross. In this clip Licona explains that the death of Jesus on the cross is one of the best attested facts of the ancient world, and mentions non-biblical sources. If Jesus did not die on the cross, Mike says, God deceived the Christians, who were called Muslims in the Qur’an.

Did Jesus die on the cross? Part 2 with Mike Licona

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Did Jesus die on the Cross? Part 2 is a video clip where expert on the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus, Dr. Mike Licona, continues his discussion on the evidence that Jesus died on the cross. One of the top four disagreements that Muslims have with Christians is whether or not Jesus died on the cross. The Bible says that Jesus died on the cross. The Qur’an tells us Jesus is a great prophet, but says he did not die on the cross. Can we determine which is historically true?

Historically, we can show that Jesus actually did predict he would be taken by authorities, be killed, and rise again. In Mark 8:31-33 Peter rebukes Jesus for saying this, then Jesus rebukes him back saying, “Get behind me Satan!” For historians, even for those who are not believers, this would be accepted as something that really happened by the “Criterion of Embarrassment.” Invented claims flatter the cause. Jesus’ and Peter’s conflict is not something that would be made up because this event is not flattering to the cause. Dr. Licona gives two other reasons as well.

So, if Jesus did not die and resurrect as he predicted, he is not a great prophet, which the Qur’an calls him. If he did, then the Qur’an is wrong.

Did Jesus only appear to die? With Mike Licona

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Did Jesus only appear to die? In this video clip Dr. Cynthia directly asks Dr. Licona for his opinion of the possibility that Jesus did not die on the cross, but that Jesus only appeared to die on the cross. This is not a significant issue for non-Muslims. They readily accept that Jesus not only appeared to die on the cross, Jesus actually did die on the cross. Not so for Muslims.

The standard Muslim interpretation of the Qur’an is that Jesus only appeared to die on the cross (Surah 4:157). Most feel Allah cast his image upon someone else, possibly Judas, and that Jesus was taken to heaven directly from the cross, before death. So, in contrast to the secular world, which accepts that Jesus died on the cross but doubts the resurrection, Muslims accept a resurrection of sorts to heaven, but deny that Jesus died on the cross, saying that it only appeared to them at the time that he did.

Dr. Cynthia points out that if it is true that Jesus only appeared to die on the cross, and it was not until the time of Mohammed that Allah clarified the misunderstanding, we are left with the fact that God would have deceived his true followers (indeed, Christians are called Muslims in the Qur’an) for six hundred years. That would make Allah a deceiver, which, as Dr. C points out, is exactly what the Qur’an calls him as well (Surah3:54). If Jesus did not die on the cross, then Jesus is a false prophet and God is a deceiver.

Muslims are there left either with a god that deceives his sincere followers by making the believe that Jesus died when he only appeared to die on the cross, or that the truth actually is found in the Bible, and confirmed by historians, that Jesus did die on the cross.

The Trinity and Incarnation with Mike Licona

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The Christmas story is about God entering human form. As the Gospel of John in the Bible says in chapter 1, “The Word became flesh and lived with us.” This single action involves both the trinity and what we call the incarnation, meaning God taking on a human body. The trinity and incarnation are two of the major objections that Muslims have against the Christian faith. The Quran speaks strongly and frequently against both.

It is interesting that the Quran does recognize that Jesus is the Word of God (Kalimatallah). It says that he was “the Word of God was bestowed upon Mary” (Quran 4:171). In Arabic it describes a special process. Yet Muslims do not interpret this special conception to mean that God entered human flesh.

As Christians, we see the Word of God as co-eternal with God, because you cannot separate God from his word. Muslims see the Quran as co-eternal with Allah, but not Jesus the Word of God. Since Christians consider Jesus eternal, but not the Bible, the Muslim view does not sound sensible to us, and vice versa.

In this video, Dr. Mike Licona and Jewish background Christian author Bob Siegal discuss the trinity and incarnation. They focus on Philippians 2 from the New Testament/Injeel. This important passage describes how God humbled himself to enter human flesh and serve humanity, even dying to save it.

Muslims don’t believe this happened: neither that God came to earth as Jesus, nor that he died as payment for our sins.

Our question to Muslims then is, “Are you saying that God could not become a human, or that he would not become human?”

If they answer that he COULD not, we point out that God/Allah spoke from the burning bush in the Quran as well as the Bible (Quran 20:12,12). If he could be in a bush, surely he could take human form. If they deny that, we say that the God we worship is more powerful than Allah .

If Muslims answer, as they commonly do, that God WOULD not humble himself so low as to experience what humans do, we point out that the Old Testament prophesied that he would, and that the New Testament/Injeel records how he did! (See our other videos on this topic, including Gospel Video Tract for Muslims: Path of the Prophets – Christian from Muslim.)

God becoming human, the incarnation, demonstrates the great love that God has for us. Most parents would humble themselves, jumping into a muddy pond to save their child’s life, even if dressed in beautiful Ramadan clothes. If human parents would do that, but God wouldn’t, then human love would be stronger than Allah/God’s. Could that really be true? Could humans exceed God in virtue? Sometimes the strength of this analogy has helped Muslims understand and finally believe that God was in Jesus, loving them and offering to save them.

Mike Licona points out to us that although a human being might be disabled in some way, losing part of human functions like walking or seeing, they are still fully human. Likewise, although human bodies do have limitations, in human form Jesus still was/is God.

Sometimes Muslims sarcastically challenge us, “If Jesus was God, where was God while Jesus was on earth?” To Christians this seems like a silly question, because we know that God is everywhere. Dr. C likes the analogy of how in a room there can be air both inside and outside of an empty glass. Likewise, God can easily be inside and outside of a vessel, such as a human body, at the same time.

Did you know that the word “trinity” is not in the Bible? Sometimes Muslims say this as an attack, thinking that it disproves the trinity. But we know that word is not in the Bible. That’s OK. It is not the word itself that is important. It is the concept.


Trinity is simply a theological word that helps explain God to humans. It can be difficult to describe how the trinity functions. It can be even more difficult for Christians to agree on details of the Father, Son, Holy Spirit relationship. At Christian from Muslim, we try to make it simple, practical and easy to understand – as with Mike’s analogy here.


We find that once a Muslim understands that Jesus, the Word of God, was the prophesied final sacrifice for sin to be made by God in a human body, the rest of the trinity is easy.


If you need more help with this concept, our other videos on the topic may help.

Has the Bible been corrupted? With Georges Houssney

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Has the Bible been corrupted? Since one of the top four objections Muslims have to the gospel is the erroneous belief that the Bible has been corrupted, in this episode Dr. Cynthia asks expert Georges Houssney, “Has the Bible been corrupted?” Houssney is a Bible translator who has supervised translation of the Bible into Arabic. He has investigated the sources of the Bible to see if it has been corrupted. Houssney cites the thousands of manuscripts of the Bible showing just how accurate Bible and the message of the gospel is, coming down from the early years after Jesus. Houssney challenges all Muslims not to simply believe what they have been told about the Bible being corrupted- they must look for proof! They will discover that the bulk of the evidence to the question “Has the Bible been corrupted?” is an overwhelming NO!

Lesson on Why Believe the Bible?

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In learning about Jesus and how to live the Christian life, the Bible is of utmost importance. Christians claim the message of the Bible has not changed in thousands of years. Muslims claim that it has been corrupted and is unreliable, and that to follow God, one must rely on the Qur’an. Which is true?

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Lesson on Does God Exist?

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Download FREE PDF Version: Study Guide for Lesson on Does God Exist?

Note: The existence of God is a topic with much important information to cover. As a result, this study guide is long. Your study group leader might want to assign only certain portions of it, and reduce the number of study questions discussed. Alternately, it could be used over several sessions.

Summary and Notes:

Quick summary: During our lives we must ask ourselves three questions:

Where did I come from?              Why am I here?                Where will I go when I die?

In this lesson we address the foundation of these three questions, “Does God Exist?” Atheism and skepticism are growing in Islamic countries, as they are in the West. In this lesson we examine the thinking and reasons behind Muslim atheism. In addition, we make suggestions to help Muslims and all atheists reconsider – God exists, but is different and far better than they had ever thought!

(Note: see also the study guide and “Lesson on Why Believe the Bible?”)

Important words:      Theist – believes God exists

Atheist – does not believe God exists

Skeptic – doubts that God exists; much like atheist

Agnostic – not sure about any religion; often like atheist

Monotheism – the belief in one God

Reality – Mammoth Site, South Dakota

Dr. Cynthia introduces us to the fascinating Mammoth Site in South Dakota. Here we find elephant-like creatures that are long extinct. It is not a graveyard where the mammoths buried their dead, but is a place of doom.

The story goes back thousands of years, to when South Dakota’s environment was much different than now. The climate was milder, and fertile enough to support mammoths. Large and well-fed, the mammoths became thirsty. They searched for water and found it –murky water, but better than nothing. Or so they thought.

What the mammoths didn’t know was that under the water lay a base of sucking mud. Desperate to satisfy their thirst, the mammoths went deeper and deeper into the dirty water. That meant deeper and deeper into hungry mud which held them tight. Frantic, they tried to escape. What good was a drink if they died?

Exactly what happened next, we don’t know for certain: did they quickly sink and suffocate, or stay stuck and crying out for days? Either way, dozens were trapped until they died.

Dr. C uses this sad story to point out that people also need water – spiritually as well as physically. Jesus tells us in John 4 that he gives living water – the kind that satisfies our souls. This living water is for everyone, yet as we look around, we see most people drinking from muddy puddles – meaning pursuits that promise satisfaction but don’t deliver. Muddy puddles will not satisfy our longings. And if we follow them too far, they can suck away our very life.

An ancient site like this also makes us wonder about what happened long before we were born. How was the earth formed? How long it has existed? What about other extinct animals?

Being of a scientific background, Dr. C the is very interested in age of the earth and its creatures, and the way God brought them into existence. It is a fascinating topic. She has opinions about it. But Dr. C respects Christians who have different views, and encourages everyone to do the same.

The Bible and the Qur’an on Creation

Muslims and Christians usually agree on issues about creation, and whether or not God exists.

There is much agreement between the Bible and the Qur’an on the topic of creation. It is nice that there are some beliefs that we can share with our Muslim friends and family. For example, some parts of the Qur’an that describe nature, sound like the Book of Psalms in the Bible (zabur).

Both the Bible and the Qur’an say that God created the heavens and earth in six days. Many people believe God used 24 hour days. The word for day, yom, is the same in both ancient Hebrew and Arabic.

Ancient Hebrew only had 3,000 words, which meant words often had more than one meaning. Some people interpret yom in the Bible and the Qur’an to mean that the days were time periods, rather than 24 hour days. You can hold either the short or long day view and be a true Christian or Muslim.

The main issue is not WHEN the universe was created, but WHO or WHAT created it. None of us were alive at the time of the origin of the universe and life. So, to look back in time, we must:

  1. examine the evidence that still remains, then
  2. try to interpret it. Naturally, there will be different interpretations of the findings.

We believe it is important not to be dogmatic about the beginning or end of the earth in terms of timing, or the mechanisms God used to create.

It is good to be convinced ourselves, and fine to have friendly discussions within the body of believers. But we should not demand that everyone share our view. Rather, we should focus more on sharing the gospel in word and deed. That is what Jesus told us to do. We must not let “friendly fire” derail our main calling – to make disciples of all nations.

The Main Thing is to Keep the Main Thing the Main Thing – sharing God’s plan for our salvation in word and deed.

You might hear that the Qur’an gives contradictory accounts of creation. That is because in Qur’an 41:9-12, if you add up the days you get eight, not six. But in multiple other places the Qur’an says six. Some non-Muslims are critical of this seeming contradiction.

Muslim apologists however, explain that some of the days described in surah 41 overlap. We give Muslims the benefit of the doubt, and accept this explanation. After all, there are some Biblical passages that need explanation. There are other passages that we disagree on in the Qur’an that are more important to discuss with them.

Both the Bible and the Qur’an point to creation as a sign of encouragement that God exists (Psalm 8 & 19, Romans 1; Qur’an 2:164). This is another area in which we agree, as we do on most of the material in this lesson.

Many Muslims are Becoming Atheists

Muslims are told not to ask questions if it would cause them to doubt (Qur’an 5:101,102).

Yet some do. As Muslims begin to question Islam, which has been taught to them as undeniably true from birth, they start to question everything else that they had thought was true. Often, they go from questioning Islam, to disbelieving Islam, to disbelieving in God.

For example, a BBC South Asia interviewer asked Dr. Cynthia,

“Since you are saying that the Qur’an, the last revelation of God is corrupted: does that mean that there is no God?”

At first Dr. C was surprised at his jump to this conclusion. But thinking it over, she saw how clearly it reflects Islamic thinking. To Muslims, the very existence of God is so strongly linked to their view of Mohammed and the Qur’an, that it is a package deal. If one part is wrong, perhaps it is all wrong.

Mercifully, some do go back to believing in God – a different kind of God – and Christianity.

(Note: In order to keep the lesson focused on Islam, we have moved other causes of atheism to Appendix 3, the end of the study guide.)

Atheism in a nutshell

Modern atheists tend to believe:

  • natural processes alone are enough to explain the origin of the universe and life, also called “scientific materialism.
  • the Theory of Evolution accounts for the development and diversity of life on earth, by mutation and natural selection
  • the physical world is all that exists

Some go beyond these beliefs to become anti-theist, saying:

  • their view is the only one with evidence
  • no one intelligent believes in God
  • God-believers are superstitious because they claim a “God of the gaps” for anything not explained; but some day science will explain
  • people who believe in God are judgmental
  • religion is the cause of most of the problems in the world
  • if God does exist, he is an evil dictator that you can’t even escape by dying

Many go beyond even those with aggressive behaviors:

  • ridiculing students and other theists
  • forbidding education to even mention Intelligent Design as an option
  • removing university professors who admit to believing in God
  • trying to remove social networking and other platforms from theists so that they cannot express their views

Ways to Consider the Existence of God

We will consider 3 types of proof that God exists:



Subjective (meaning with personal experience, insight, or feelings)

Philosophical Arguments for the Existence of God: using LOGIC

Guest Luke Price makes a very simple presentation of what logic is. Then, he presents his four favorite arguments for the existence of God. They are:

  1. The Beginning of the Universe
  2. The Complexity of the Universe
  3. The Origin of Life
  4. Consciousness

Learning Easy LOGIC

Before we examine Price’s favorite four, let’s look at how to form a logical “argument.” This way of organized thinking, Price explains, goes back to ancient Greece.

An argument in this sense does not mean fighting. It means an orderly presentation of statements which are called “premises.” Each of the statements presented must be true. If true, the premises lead to an unavoidable conclusion.

The Logical ARGUMENT:

Premise 1

Premise 2_________________

Conclusion: based on the Premises

The only way to avoid the conclusion is to disprove one of the premises.

Presenting the case for God to Muslims is similar to how we explain the existence of God to any agnostic or atheist. We present truth and pray for God’s Spirit to confirm it and convict them.

(Note: Islam uses circular reasoning, which is different than logic. For example,

“The Qur’an is God’s word because Prophet Mohammed says so. Mohammed is a prophet because the Qur’an says so.”

Using one thing to prove the other and vice versa is not considered logic. But if you were raised with it, it is probably convincing.

Jesus did not use circular reasoning. In John 5, Jesus told us if he testifies for himself (as Mohammed did) it is not valid. He then gave three outside reasons, to back up his claim.

(Note: See also the study guide and Lesson on What Makes a True Prophet?)

Example: using logic with Muslims Dr. C had the opportunity to tutor a strict Muslim in Critical Thinking and Rhetoric. After these two courses, she encouraged the student to apply this way of thinking to religion, not simply to accept Islam’s claims. She is still praying for a result.)

Price’s Favorite Four Arguments

  1. Argument #1 The BEGINNING of the Universe

The Cosmological Argument

Premise 1: Anything that begins to exist has a cause

Premise 2: The universe began to exist

Conclusion: Therefore the Universe has a Cause

This argument is one of a family of arguments for God called “cosmological.” meaning related to the universe, or cosmos. Some of our Muslim friends might recognize it as the “Kalam,” which originated in the Middle Ages by a Muslim trained in logic.

The Universe had a Beginning.

Among world religions, only the Bible and Qur’an claim that the universe began.

  • This significantly points toward which religion is true: Judaism, Islam, or Christianity.
  • For thousands of years there was no proof of whether the universe was eternal or began. Religions could teach whatever they chose about the beginning of the universe, without fear of being proven wrong.
  • All that changed in the1920s when high powered telescopes became able to look into deep space and discover that the stars and galaxies are moving apart. This means that at one point back in time everything was all together, until a “Big Bang” explosion blew it apart.

In other words, the universe began.

Eastern religions, like Buddhism, Sikhism, Hinduism, and New Age are becoming popular alternatives to monotheism. But they hold significant problems with logic and truth, because they:

  • teach an eternal universe, which does not fit the facts.
  • believe in pantheism, that god is inside creation, as “the coexistence of god and matter.” This belief does not provide a force or god outside of the universe to create it.
    • God needs to exist outside of the creation to create it.
    • Nothing cannot create something
    • God cannot create himself out of nothing.

The Bible is not a science textbook. However, it does clearly say that the universe had a beginning, and God “spread it out.” Both claims fit with the evidence of science. (Genesis 1:1, Isaiah 42:5)

  1. Argument # 2 The COMPLEXITY of the Universe

The Design Argument

Premise 1: Design is evidence of a Mind

Premise 2: The Universe shows evidence of Design

Conclusion: Therefore the Universe was Designed by a Mind

Logical arguments about complexity suggesting design of the universe are called “Teleological Arguments.” Intelligent Design is the name some scientists use to explain that the evidence of design in the universe shows that designer a was at work.

  • Fine tuning of the Universe. The complexity of the universe becomes more and more clear as science understands it better.

For example, the evidence of:

    • design in the cosmos
      • variations in the background radiation of the universe are even called “the fingerprints of God”
    • the fine-tuning of the universe required for life on earth

Life only can exist under narrow conditions. Our amazing universe is so finely tuned for life on earth that it is impossible to ignore.

Position, physical laws, and constants: In the last 100 years we have discovered many physical laws and constants which must be exactly right for life to exist. A common one you know is gravity. Gravity must be just right – not too much or too little. Besides constants, there are many other things which must be precisely right for life to exist. For example, the sun must be just the right kind of star at the right phase of its life, set in the right spot of the universe with a planet at just the right distance away to support life.

  • The Complexity of Life is appearing less and less random as we learn more about:
    • DNA coding of the cell’s genetics
    • intracellular information processing
      • how the cell knows to use DNA for growth, etc.
    • intracellular micromachines
    • the limits of mutation and natural selection

Considering this, in the video lesson Luke Price says,

“Personally, I find the level of complexity that is present in nature is very difficult to explain if you are only appealing to evolution, naturalistic processes, and random chance.”

He tells us that these process can explain a lot, like the diversity of dog breeds, but not the complexity of genetic diversity. Astounded by this genetic diversity, some atheist scientists become theists because:

The complexity of information coded in the cell is fast becoming the greatest evidence of Intelligent Design.

Example of Complexity without Meaning: Granite

Dr. C likes the analogy of patterns in granite rock. Granite counters are popular now. Perhaps you have seen some, or even have one in your kitchen or bathroom. The complexity of the patterns is immense: the colors, size, and placement of the minerals forming dots, lines and patterns seems endless. The chance of any slab of granite with exactly that pattern is exceedingly rare. Yet, its random pattern has no significance.

Consider life: not only is it exceedingly rare that any particular combination of information would exist, but the chance that it would encode meaningful information – as DNA and RNA do – is so remote as to be unreal. Computer engineers say the detail in the genetic code reminds them of complex computer coding that could in no way be random.

Example of Complexity with Meaning: Literature

In the video Luke gives us an example of random chance versus information with meaning. Imagine monkeys pushing keys for 6 billion letters on a typewriter at random. The chance of any particular sequence is remote. However, for the 6 billion letters to create the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare at random, is laughably unlikely.

Advances in Science reveal complexity

During the days of Darwin, who presented the Theory of Evolution in the mid-19th century, science was much simpler than today. Telescopes and microscopes were less powerful. Biochemistry was basic. Guesses about how living things worked seemed adequate.

In the decades following Darwin, major scientific advancements and discoveries were made. Now we look far into space through high powered telescopes. We peer deep into cells to see teeny, but advanced, machines and processes. By sequencing the amazing complexity of DNA we discover: where our characteristics come from, how humans are related, our susceptibility for diseases, and even where our ancestors lived.

Attempting to explain how all this complexity could arise without God, scientists came up with the following explanations:

  • Atheistic Explanations of Complexity

Only Appearance of Design. Atheists are willing to accept all the evidence of design as appearing to be design, yet still consider it only chance.

If you or I found a watch on the ground in the desert, regardless of our religion or philosophy we would know that it didn’t come from the dirt. Someone had made it. We would know that it had been left there, probably on accident, and we might try even to find the owner.

Atheists however, must look at the universe, which is far more complex than a watch, and say that it was only chance. Atheist Richard Dawkins in his book, The Blind Watchmaker says,

“Biology is the study of complicated things that give the appearance of being designed for a purpose…the living results…overwhelmingly impress us with the illusion of design and planning.” (p. 1 & 21)

Yet consider what Dr. C calls The Flint Inconsistency, with its simplest recognized evidence of design:

  • Early Tools: Before metals were developed, people used stone tools. Flint is a strong stone that early humans chipped, or knapped, to make a sharp edge for knives and axes.

Although you and I might overlook a flint with a chip as nothing – merely time and chance acting on stone – the scientists which study early humans (anthropologists and archaeologists) would not. To them, even a tiny piece of flint with chips is evidence of design – the action of human beings.

Yet the complex universe as a whole these scientists believe was the result of chance, not design.

  • Notice their inconsistency? Scientists should be consistent. But atheist scientists are not. In one case they accept the tiniest evidence. Yet in the other they overlook an abundance. It’s like the expression, “They can’t see the forest for the trees.” Or as Jesus said in Matthew 23:24,

“You blind guides! You strain out a gnat but swallow a camel.”

  • The multiverse hypothesis tries to get around the fine tuning of earth for life. It proposes that there are unlimited universes, of which ours is only one; the others aren’t tuned to support life.

The multiverse hypothesis is supposedly scientific, but has little scientific basis. They simply guess at how the constants of the universe could be set as they are without God being involved. They nod to quantum mechanics to say that these multiverses could have originated out of nothing. Yet, when you ask them what nothing is, the nothing of quantum mechanics it is not really “nothing.”

  • The simulation hypothesis sounds like a strange marriage of computer science, Hollywood, and video games. Yet it is a serious hypothesis, gaining in popularity. In this idea, all of us are in a computer simulation of life. Not real. We simply think we are.

Are these 3 explanations adequate to explain the complexity?

We do not think that these atheistic explanations adequately account for the complexity of the universe and life.

Considering the weight of the evidence theists have, and how much the multiverse and simulation theories sound like fairy tales, believing in God is even easier!

As Dr. C says, “When you get to the beginning of the universe, and the origin of life, both theists and atheists alike must rely metaphysical explanations,” meaning beyond physics – explanations that we can think of, but cannot prove.

To theists, believing in God is more sensible than the unprovable, atheistic theories of the origin and complexity of the universe.

  1. Argument #3 The ORIGIN of Life

Besides explaining how things came into existence, another big hurdle is the explanation of how life began. This is not so much in terms of an argument of logic, as scientific explanation.

Three Huge Hurdles for Atheists:

  • Out of Time
    • Because they reproduce quickly, the mutation rates of bacteria have been studied for the past several decades. In fact more than 50,000 generations have passed – a number we could not dream of observing with animals. The mutation rate and types of mutations have been documented. Most mutations are negative, not constructive, and would not lead toward evolutionary development.
    • It is estimated that there are over 8 million species on earth, of which we have identified over 1 million. Whether you believe life on earth began 6,000 years ago or 3 billion years, there is simply not enough time for mutation and natural selection to develop this many species.
  • More against Less
    • The tendency of all things is to become less complicated, rather than more complicated over time. We see this in situations from everyday life, for example an untended garden, as well as in physics with The Second Law of Thermodynamics.
    • This tendency goes against the atheistic evolution. In science, a law is something that is always true. If a theory contradicts a law, the theory is usually wrong.
  • Right or Left Turn
    • You might have heard that the building blocks of life were made in a laboratory over 50 years ago. What you did not hear is that they were very simple compounds which lasted only brief seconds. They were unstable. They were formed in a special environment very different than that of early earth. Plus, they were a mixture of right hand and left hand orientation.

Did you know chemicals are oriented right or left, like hands? Proteins are made of parts that must all line up left (levorotatory). Even if we had a mixture on early earth of the chemical building blocks of life in precisely the right environment, their connections would be at random. We would not have all the right and all the left-oriented chemicals attaching to each other unless an outside force assisted them.

Example of Orientation: hand in glove. Our right and left hands are different. Our thumbs are on the different sides of the fingers. As you remember if you have worn a glove for work or in cold weather, right and left gloves are different. You simply can’t make one work for the other.

Imagine that you have ten sets of wet gloves. You put them into the dryer and spin them for an hour. After an hour, you open the door. Do you expect to see all of the right hand gloves lined up on the right side of the dryer and all of the left hand gloves lined up on the left? No! What if you kept spinning them for 2 hours? 5 hours? a day? 10,000 years? 1,000,000 years?

I think we agree that no matter how long we spin the gloves, without outside assistance they will always distribute at random, not in an organized pattern. And yet, this example is extremely simplified compared to the number and complexity of chemicals needed to create life.

Atheists Propose Panspermia to try to get around there not being enough time for life to have evolved on earth. It proposes that the earth was seeded with life from outer space. Very few people would take seriously the idea that aliens visited earth and planted life here. But, perhaps a meteor carried elements of life, they claim.

Panspermia is extremely unlikely. Other planets in our solar system cannot sustain life. As for planets beyond our solar system, the distance to the nearest star makes it unlikely that living material would make it from there.

Panspermia’s Problem: Even if this were possible and did happen, it would not really help. Why? Because you would still need to explain how life began on the planet of its origin. You would only be knocking the ball into a different court, but it would still be a ball.

  1. Argument #4 CONSCIOUSNESS

Assuming that there were reasonable explanations for the origin of the universe, its complexity, and the origin of life, we still have to explain the miracle of human consciousness.

Luke tells us that consciousness is the part of us that we alone have access to. That means it is subjective.

Objective and Subjective

Objective evidence means factual, not related to how someone feels.

Subjective means opinion or the way something feels to a person, not the facts.

When we die, all of our physical parts are still there, but something is missing Luke tells us, our soul or spirit. It is the essential part of who we are – our pain, loves, and emotions.

Where would these come from if not from a mind? It takes a mind to create a mind. That creator would be God.

Consciousness is not merely a sense of right and wrong (discussed in “The Moral Argument”), but the fact that humans have a special sense of awareness of who they are, the situation they are in, their mortality, and wonder about the meaning of the universe. Bible-believers consider it related to our creation in the Image of God:

“So God created human beings in his own imageIn the image of God he created them; male and female he created them.” Genesis 1:27 (NLT)

“He has also set eternity in the human heart yet no one can fathom what God has done from beginning to end.” Ecclesiastes 3:11

So we have a Biblical explanation that at the time of their creation, God did something special with human beings, different from the rest of creation. The Image of God is not clearly defined, but in general, it is thought to mean:

  • Resemblance to God
  • Representative of God on earth
  • and/or have Relationship with God

 Resemblance: Characteristics of Image-bearers which give us resemblance to God are:

Creative           Moral              Rational           Spiritual          Relational

The first four of these characteristics require the use of symbols and abstract thinking, which are considered distinctive of human beings.

If you have seen nature documentaries you will know that chimpanzees and gorillas show many human-like behaviors. That is not what makes them in the image of God.

Don’t be distressed if someone points to characteristics that seem human in apes or hominids (extinct creatures with features between humans and apes). Many characteristics that we think of as human, can also be seen in other animals.

Some animals have special capacities. They have been called “soulish animals.” Soulish animals can show affection to each other and humans, mourn their dead, learn behaviors, and use tools. It is as if they were specially created to comfort humans, or assist them with specific functions, like herding animals or detecting drugs. But they do not have the special relationship with God that we do.

Representative: of God on Earth

As God’s representatives, the Bible says we are to be stewards of the earth. We are to tend the land and its animals well. We honor and care for creation. (Genesis 1:28, Psalm 8:6-8, Proverbs 12:10) At the same time, as believers we know that there is a special quality about human beings which we should honor above other animals. Not all philosophies recognize this.

Relationship: God’s Family

Only human beings can have a special, family relationship with God. (John 1:12)

Two Other Arguments for God

Besides Price’s Big Four arguments for God, there are other philosophical and scientific arguments. Probably every believer has their favorites. You might have heard of some of these, or perhaps others.

(Note: Feel free to share your favorites on the comments section of our video.)

  1. The “God Gene”

Related to the Consciousness Argument is the idea that most people have a sense of there being a God. This trait is so deeply associated with humans, that those studying ancient humans (anthropologists), consider worship of a greater power a distinctly human trait.

Subjective Experience

In his Letter to Huda at the end of this lesson, Georges Houssney quotes French philosopher Pascal who describes a God-shaped hole in each heart which can only be filled by God. We try to fill it with human love, activities, money, position, or possessions – but they don’t satisfy.

If we focus on:

  • circumstances, we will fear
  • people, we will be angry
  • things, we will be disappointed
  • God and his Word we will have hope, abundant life, love, joy, and peace (John 10:10 & Romans 14:27)

Most people go through life either feeling, or trying to suppress the feeling that:

  • there is something or someone greater than me
  • I exist in a greater capacity than my body expresses
  • things are not right in the world, and something should be done about it
  • all this glory of nature surely can’t have come from nothing
  • a loving God gives me peace

Your personal testimony of how Jesus saved you and the Holy Spirit entered your life is part of your subjective experience. Because subjective experiences are only experienced by you, they are not objective. Other people can’t reason it out objectively like they can other arguments. Atheists will tend to disregard it as emotionalism. So, in discussion with atheists for we don’t find this a top way to prove that God exists. (See Appendix 4 on the Personal Apologetic Testimony)

However, Dr. C agrees with Christian philosopher and debater William Lane Craig, that one’s personal experience can be a valid proof to themselves. And sometimes, when other’s see the love and power of God acted out in your life, it touches them too. So, Dr. C often likes to end a discussion with a personal note, for Jesus told us to use spirit and truth in our worship of God. (John 4:24)

Not everyone has a sense that God exists. A famous mountaineer feel down an ice crevasse, and thought he would die. At his life or death moment, he says, he had no sense of God. But then, he had been atheist for a very long time.

Does it mean there is no God if we can’t sense him?

That God is imagined? Or perhaps that he only exists for those who believe in him?

As noted Craig has said, we don’t have a sense organ for everything. Things like ultrasonic sound, radiation, and math exist, but we can’t sense them like we can light and sound. What about diseases? So many, like infections and cancer can only be seen with a microscope.

We must use more than our 5 senses to determine if God is real. We must use our “capacity for reason,” which some philosophers go so far as to call our “sense organ for God.”

  1. The Moral Argument

The idea that people everywhere have a sense of right and wrong is a favorite proof to many people that there is a God. If there is no God, they say, there would be no reason for this sense, because without God there is no real right and wrong. This is not a favorite of Luke and Dr. C, because the sense of right and wrong is deeply tied to cultural values.

(Note: For a fuller discussion of The Moral Argument, see Study Guide and Lesson on Godly Relationships.)

In Conclusion, God is the Best Fit

As you can see from the six above arguments for God, an outside force is necessary to:

  • create something from nothing
  • design complex and information rich systems
  • create life from dead chemicals
  • create a mind with consciousness, morality, and a sense of God

It is not possible to 100% prove some things. For example something that happened in the past or will happen in the future. What we accept if we are using reason, is the best fit of the facts that we have. Words that debaters might use are “plausible” or “potentially valid.”

The existence of God is the best fit for the scientific and philosophical evidence we have.

As one former atheist said after his conversion,

The evidence for God is strong, clear, and convincingThe evidence against God is weak, vague, and dubious.”

Dr. Cynthia, a medical doctor who has done research and taught medicine, believes science and logic fit better with the existence of God than atheism. She is not alone in this.  Besides believing physicians, Ph.D. scientists are starting to leave atheism because of the weight of evidence favoring God. This doesn’t mean that scientists support the Bible, or that all discoveries fit neatly into a Christian world view. But, when we look at the facts overall, they fit best with the world view of theism: there is a God.

The “Other Fields Fit Better” Defense. When faced with these facts, how can scientists continue to be atheists? They say something like, “Yes, there are problems in [my field], but the other fields fit well with naturalistic causes only.” But the other fields don’t. Every field of science faces significant challenges and unlikelihood in explaining everything with natural processes and no help from outside nature.

Atheists have a lot to answer for. Objective evidence that fits best with a God must be explained by them in a powerful way. There are many things which are difficult to explain in the absence of God, regardless of how hard atheists try to smooth things over.

Deeper scientific details are beyond the scope of this lesson. For more information on how science fits with the Bible, see sites such as:, or For more information on philosophical approaches to theism, see

(Note: Additional information for this lesson can be found in Appendix 1 – Appendix 4, after the study questions. We think it is important information, but do not want to lengthen the lesson. The topics are: How to Follow Science without Being Tricked, Stumbling Blocks to Believing in God, Causes of Atheism, and Developing a Personal Apologetic Testimony.)

In summary, there are many things about the universe and human experience that fit best with there being a God. God is the best fit solution for the objective scientific information, and for the subjective experiences and needs of the human heart and soul.

Reality: Driving into the Smog

On a road trip, former Muslim Huda and Dr. C drive down the mountains north of Los Angeles, California. As they descend, it becomes clear that they are entering impure air – the notorious smog of Southern California.

Dr. C uses this as an illustration of how we can live surrounded by something we do not notice. We get used to what is in our culture, without always identifying if it is good or bad. The kinds of sins the people of Los Angeles get used to living in might be different than those of Islamic countries.

Example of seeming clean: a white railing. In the video lesson, Dr. C used the illustration of washing the white railing of her veranda. It looked clean, but when water was sprayed on it, it became clear that it was actually dirty. That’s the way it is when Jesus’ living water comes into our life. We see how far short of perfection we fall, and long for pure, refreshing, living water. (John 7:38)

Letter to Huda: from Georges Houssney

In this part of the video lesson, Georges encourages Huda to seek a life close to Jesus, rather than a happy life. True happiness, he says, comes only from Jesus. If she gets deeper into Jesus, and fully relies on him, her life will be its best.

He refers to these Bible verses:

  • Jesus is the way, truth, and life. (John 14:6)
  • Seek God’s kingdom first, and everything important will fall into place. (Matthew 6:33)
  • If we seek to make a great life, we will end up losing it; but if we give our life Jesus, we will find it. (Matthew 10:39)

And as Jesus did, Georges gives us several metaphors, or word pictures:

  • We might become thirsty enough to drink salty water, but it will not satisfy.
  • The bread that Jesus gives satisfies. It is the bread of life.
  • Georges puts together puzzles with his grandchildren. If a piece is missing, the picture is not complete. As in our discussion above that most people have a sense that God exists, Georges reminds us that only God can fill the hole in our heart – he is the missing piece of the puzzle.

“Don’t be distracted by the world,” he says, “Seek Truth.”

Scripture References:

  • II Corinthians 5:17
  • John 5
  • Romans 1
  • Psalm 8 & 19
  • Genesis 1:1,27, 28
  • Isaiah 42:5
  • Ecclesiastes 3:11
  • John 1:12
  • Psalm 8:5-8
  • Proverbs 12:10
  • John 10:10 & 4:24
  • Romans 14:27 & 8:28
  • Psalm 118:1
  • John 1:3
  • Colossians 1:16
  • John 7:38 & 14:6
  • Matthew 6:33 & 10:39
  • Ecclesiastes 9:11
  • Job 23 & 38 & 40-42
  • Luke 13:4
  • Romans 8:28, & 8:15-17
  • John 16:33
  • Genesis 6:4
  • Hebrews 12:2,3
  • Isaiah 63:9 & 61:8
  • Galatians 3:28
  • I Peter 3:15

Qur’an References:

  • Creation:
    • 6 days of creation – 10:3, 11:7, 25:59, 32:4, 50:38, & 57:4
    • 8 days described for creation 41:9-12
    • as signs of God – 2:164


Study Questions:

  1. Why are Muslims becoming atheists?
  • Does it make sense to you?
  • Why do you think non-Muslims become atheists? (see Appendix 3)
  1. Review the steps of a logical argument.
  • What is a “premise?”
  • Why do you think it is important to know how to make a logical argument?
  1. This lesson contains some words which are new for most people.
  • Practice saying these words:
    • Theist and atheist
    • Cosmological
    • Kalam
    • Teleological
    • Objective and subjective
  • Define them if you can.
  1. Review four of the following arguments for the existence of God:
  • Cosmological (origin of the universe)
  • Teleological (complexity of the universe and life)
  • Origin of Life
  • Consciousness
  • Moral
  • God gene
  • Subjective experience
  • A casual, “There’s just too much to explain without God” argument
    • Which four of the above arguments does Luke Price think are the best?
    • Which four do you prefer?
  1. Regarding the beginning of the universe and its age: In the video lesson, Dr. C emphasizes the importance for Christians to agree on the arguments that support the existence of God, rather than argue with each other about details like the time involved to create the universe.
  • Were you present at the beginning of the universe? (Job 38)
  • What neutral point does Dr. C say that we can make about the age of the earth and its creatures, that Christians can agree on without arguing?
  • How do you feel Christians should balance Christian unity with their different views of creation, for example if the days of creation are 24 hours, eras, or allegorical?
  • Which is more important to you:
    • winning the lost to Christ?
    • convincing others, that the world was created the way you think it was?
  • What does it mean to “keep the main thing the main thing?”
  1. Review how these religions/philosophies explain the origin of the universe and life:
  • Islam
  • Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism
  • Scientific materialism (common atheism)
  • any other that you know
  • Christianity and Judaism
  1. Regarding the complexity of the cosmos and nature:
  • Give examples that you think go against naturalistic processes.
  • For an illustration that you can use with your friends, do you find the granite, or monkeys on a typewriter examples helpful?
  • Can you think of examples of complexity with meaning and without meaning?
  1. What are some obstacles that must be overcome for life on earth to originate?
  • Have scientists ever been able to create real life in the laboratory?
  • Do you feel you have been told the truth about this by your teachers and the media?
  • Did you learn anything new/different about it in this lesson?
  • Do you like the illustration of gloves in a dryer?
  1. Review some arguments that atheists propose to explain away the need for God, that Luke’s top 4 arguments support?
  • Have you heard these before?
  • On the surface, do they sound reasonable to you?
  • Do you think they are more likely explanations than the existence of God?
  1. Regarding Consciousness: Since atheists only accept material, naturalistic processes, they have trouble explaining human consciousness.
  • How would you explain human consciousness?
  • How do you think it might relate to the “image of God?”
  • What other things do you think are difficult to explain by naturalistic processes alone?
  1. Do you believe God exists?
  • Why or why not? List the objective reasons.
  • If not, what would it take to convince you that God does exist?
  1. If you are an atheist or skeptic:
  • Is there a subjective component to your lack of belief in God? For example:
    • Could you be disappointed with God over something?
    • Are you struggling with the problem of evil and pain in the world?
    • Could you be letting negative feelings influence your consideration of whether or not God exists?
    • Are there activities that you enjoy which you fear you would have to give up if you believe in God?
  • What do you think are the best arguments for the existence of God? Ones that make you think?
  1. Georges Houssney says that God is the missing piece in the puzzle of our lives.
  • From what you have learned about objective and subjective, is the feeling that something is missing from our lives objective or subjective?
  • Is that feeling something that is easy to prove to another person?
  • Do you find it a strong or weak argument for the existence of God when someone shares their testimony of what God has done in their life?
  1. What does misattribution mean regarding the works of God and Satan? (see Appendix 2)
  2. If you are a believer:
  • Has this lesson strengthened your faith?
  • Has it made you more comfortable defending it with atheists?
  1. Do you think that the presence or absence of a father figure might have influenced:
  • whether you, or people that you know, believe in God?
  • what you think he is like?
  • (for more, see Appendix 3)
  1. Evangelism suggestion. One well-known evangelist has successfully had atheists reconsider that God might exist by this: he has them hold and flip through a book with simple, colored pictures. He follows that with questions such as,
    • “Do you think that this book with all its colors and printing could have appeared from nothing, by chance?”
    • “What would you think of someone who said it did.”
    • “Do you know what DNA is? It is the instruction book for life. It is far more complicated than that printed book.”
    • “Do you think it could have appeared from nothing?”
    • “If the book had a designer, wouldn’t DNA have a designer?
  • What do you think of this approach?
  • In what circumstances could you see yourself using this approach?
  • Would you change it at all?
  • If you are in a group setting, practice this approach with each other.
  1. Regarding a Personal Apologetic Testimony (PAT, see Appendix 4 ):
  • Have you made one?
  • What are the main points in yours?
  • How could you adapt it for sharing with different people or settings?
  • When is the next time you plan to use it?


Appendix # 1 How to Follow Science without Being Tricked

Considering the current discord between science and religion, most people are surprised to discover that Christianity was a founding principle of science. Most great scientists for the first 200 years were devout Christians. For example, Isaac Newton, who among other things discovered gravity.

Modern science with its Scientific Method, originated in Europe in the 1600s. It was based on the belief that God was reasonable and orderly, and that his ways in the universe were reasonable and orderly. That being so, they thought, his ways in nature could be discovered.

During the 19th century, the era of Darwin, scientists started looking to worldviews that were “natural,” meaning did not rely on God. That trend continued to grow through the end of the 20th century. Then discoveries of the complexity, constants, and unlikelihood of all that exists, brought God back into the picture for many people.

Keep an eye on science. Discoveries are constantly being made about the complexity of the universe and life. They demonstrate more and more that chance alone cannot account for everything. But, uncomfortable with the emerging facts, atheist scientists will tend to overlook facts that don’t fit, or twist findings into their naturalistic model. Their twists can trick you unless you are aware and looking for them.

Two Ways Not to be Tricked

  1. Watch for FACT and FICTION

Look at the evidence, but don’t trust the conclusions that atheists draw from it.

They expertly mix the objective evidence with their subjective opinions and wishes. So be skeptical, doubtful, of their interpretations. (Other words to describe this would be bias, prejudice, lack of objectivity, or presuppositional stance.)

For example, a popular TV science host uses the time-proven formula for deception, that used by Satan in the Garden of Eden: truth, truth, then untruth. With this approach, he has managed to deceive people, especially youths, into believing that God neither exists or is necessary. In fact, he ridicules believers.

Example of Mixing facts with Untruth: Early Earth and the Origin of Life

In this example regarding the origin of life, a top media scientist presents two true facts, but draws a false conclusion. The conclusion seems true because the premises are true, but not related:

True Premise: Early earth had harsh conditions

True Premise: There are bacteria that live in harsh conditions today

FALSE Conclusion: Bacteria like these could have arisen in early earth

The clever argument sounds convincing, and probably convinces almost everyone that watches. Only people who know a about logic or microbiology – and you if you are suspicious – can detect the error.

The problem is that the bacteria which can survive in these conditions are not primitive. They are very sophisticated. Bacteria, like those in their example which survive in extreme heat and salt, need special membranes with complex systems like salt pumps. These are not present in simple organisms. The true argument should be more like this:

Premise: Early earth had harsh conditions

Premise: Only complex organisms can survive in harsh conditions

Conclusion: Simple organisms would not survive on early earth

QUESTION: Perhaps you say, “I am not the most logical person, and I am certainly not an expert in every branch of science. How can I keep from being deceived?”

ANSWER: Don’t be tricked. Now you know the formula: mix facts with falsehood – more facts than falsehood so that it sounds convincing. When reading or listening, try to separate the facts from their interpretation.

Facts are something that we can prove, for example, that some bacteria can exist in extreme conditions. Then look for assumptions and opinions, like the idea that it means life originated in hot, salty water.


Don’t jump at the first few reports of a discovery.

Dr. Cynthia learned this studying medicine. There are always reports coming out of medicines that cure everything, or “amazing” discoveries. Discoveries need to be repeated and confirmed by other groups in different places, in order to be certain.

Dr. C, and most physicians, wait until treatments and practices are solidly confirmed before putting confidence in them. This is called “the standard of practice.” There are research institutions that try new things; but they need to let patients know that the treatment is unproven. In America they must review the risks and benefits before using it.

So don’t be shaken when you hear of new discoveries that appear to contradict the idea of God, or what you learned in this lesson. Wait for more evidence to appear.

For example, two areas of active investigation now, in which new information is being reported that might shake you are:

  • LIFE on OTHER PLANETS: analysis of meteors and other space matter to determine if life could exist on other planets:
    • evidence of water in space would not be surprising – much of the universe is water
    • even if there were other planets with life, we know that anything anywhere was created by God (John 1:3, Colossians 1:16)
  • GENETIC TESTING to determine the age and history of early humans
    • sophisticated techniques are being used which are good; but the findings are early and incomplete.
    • The methods have a wide variation of interpretation, especially with dating
    • Europeans appear to have some DNA in common with hominids, non-human primates called Neanderthals. The reasons are not clear yet: interbreeding or independent adaptation to the climate are options.
    • Humans are all related, but it’s not proven to one man and woman.
      • It could be, if Eve’s eggs were genetically mixed.
      • It’s good that we are all related. Evolution supports racism. Creation does not.

Again, these and other findings are being investigated now. Don’t be shaken, and don’t reconstruct theology around findings which could be disproven in a few more years.

Appendix # 2 Stumbling Blocks to Believing in God

Besides their misunderstanding of science, there are a few other stumbling blocks to believing in God which we commonly see:

Stumbling block 1: The Problem of Evil/Suffering/Pain

The world is full of pain and suffering. Some things happen which are downright evil. All of us experience these. None of us like it. Evil and suffering are not exactly the same; but their negative power make people doubt that there is a God.

In general, people tend to think that if they are good, nothing bad will happen to them. Often they think, if something bad happens to you, you deserve it. Certainly people can bring on bad results, and wisdom helps us live a safe and successful life; but the Bible warns us against “blaming the victim.” As Ecclesiastes 9:11 says,

“Time and chance happen to them all…so people are trapped by evil times that fall unexpectedly upon them.”

Examples from the Bible:

  • HEALTH: The Book of Job in the Old Testament has the theme of “Why do the Righteous Suffer?”
    • The answer is that they do, and that sometimes only God knows why, but we can count on him not to forsake us (Job 40-42)
  • ACCIDENTS: Jesus explained to his followers that those who died when a tower fell were not more sinful than others. (Luke 13:4)

Modern Example of blaming the victim: Motor Vehicle Accident Autopsy.

Dr. C recalls an autopsy she did years ago at the Los Angeles Coroner’s office, on a 16 year old young man. He died in a car crash on a winding road – one that she herself used to take at his age. Externally, the young man showed little evidence of injury. His naked body lying on the autopsy table was well-formed and his face handsome.

She thought he looked like a dead Adonis, the handsome young man of legend. As they turned over his body to examine the back, Dr C said to her assistant, “His parents must be devastated!”

The assistant saw it otherwise. He replied harshly, “Aaaah…he was probably a spoiled brat!” His hardened attitude shocked Dr. C. She discovered it reflected his general view that those dead in the coroner’s office deserved what they got.

But most of the time, suffering leaves us puzzled. The Bible does tell us that God will reward his followers, but he does not promise an easy life. (Romans 8:28, John 16:33)

Other Religions and the Problem of Suffering/Evil

All religions and philosophies must address the problems of suffering and evil. Atheism probably finds it easiest, in explaining that natural process account for it all.

Because of their strong belief in fate, devout Muslims tend to accept suffering as the will of Allah, to be borne with patience. Alhamdulillah, praise Allah, is to be said in all circumstances.

However, some Muslims notice that most of the world’s conflicts occur in Muslims regions. The suffering resulting from these conflicts, and the often violent enforcement of Islam cause some to doubt it. They then doubt God’s existence as a consequence of doubting Islam.

Eastern religions see human suffering as the consequence of deeds from a past life, bad karma. Buddha agreed with reincarnation, but began a new religion to help his followers suffer less by detaching from everything in life – including people.

Subjective and Objective Views of Suffering/Evil

Objectively, there are 4 Main Causes of Suffering:

  1. from poor human choices
    • at times we know, but keep doing something destructive any way
    • examples: drugs, alcohol, dangerous hobbies, sexual misbehavior
  2. from people hurting people
    • physically – crime, war, violence, cruelty
    • psychologically
  3. from diseases
  4. infectious
  5. others – cancer, immune, developmental
  6. injuries
  7. from natural forces which keep the world running, but can also bring disasters
  8. hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanos, weather
  9. we can only predict and avoid some
  10. accidents

The first two categories can be modified by human choices, the latter two less so. All of them are difficult to accept, and at times to understand.

Subjectively, human suffering is bad or worse. Dead bodies on a battlefield or starving children break our heart. We are outraged by crimes against humanity and war. The evil of Satanic ritual’s torture of children is unimaginable for most of us. Accidents and natural disasters scare and appall us. And if we survive these, we will eventually die from disease.

Some diseases and injuries can bring pain so severe that we want to stop living. Dr. C can never forget the pain of patients calling out for mercy, or her brother’s lifelong suffering with physical and mental disability. At times, death and eternity seem easier to accept than ongoing pain and distress.

The Logical Argument of Suffering/Evil

Worldwide, evil, suffering, and pain are probably the greatest stumbling blocks to believing in God. A famous skeptic, who publicly complains that his doubts about Christianity came from manuscript variants, in his book admits that it was actually the problem of Evil/Pain that made him abandon God. Many others say the same,

“If there is a God, Why do Suffering and Evil Exist?”

As an argument of logic it could be stated this way:

Premise: If God exists there would be no suffering or evil

Premise: Suffering and evil exist

Conclusion: God does not exist

Remember, to disprove the logic of a conclusion, we must show that a premise is wrong. If we examine the premises, what do we find? We find three underlying assumptions – things that are assumed to be true:

  1. God is good
  2. God would change things if he/she existed
  3. God could change things if he/she existed

But are these true?

  • Some religions have evil gods.
  • How do we know that God would change things? Maybe he/she has another plan?
  • Could an omnipotent God have limitations?

Cultures built around monotheism tend to see God as omnipotent, all-powerful. Miracles happen when God steps in and changes the way things operate. But God doesn’t always step in, he allows suffering and evil.

Not in the video is Luke’s explanation for how an omnipotent God allows evil:

“God permits evil choices to maintain our free will. God can do all things which are possible; but when God made the decision to allow humans to freely choose good or evil, it became impossible to make them freely choose the good.”

Watch out for misattribution!

Misattribution in this sense means giving credit wrongly. It is easy to give Satan credit for the good in life – like fun, music, beauty – and God credit for the bad – like injustice and cruelty. Actually, the reverse is true. If we are not familiar with God’s word, and remind ourselves of it daily, we can easily fall for this trick of the enemy.

Can Evil Spirits Cause Diseases? We know from the Old Testament that evil spirits exist which are different and more powerful than us. They could take on human flesh and impregnate women (Psalm 8:5, Genesis 6:4). Human beings have learned how to clone, genetically engineer crops, and modify viruses for vaccines, etc. Dr. C thinks it is entirely possible that, having greater powers than humans and evil intentions, these spirits could genetically engineer bad things: infectious diseases, cancer cells, and even alter mosquitos to suck blood.

Sometimes good comes from pain or evil.

Examples: of Pain for Good.

  1. C hated making children cry to treat them, yet it was necessary. Sometimes even adults would cry out or faint. In order to heal patients, doctors must steel themselves against reacting to this.
  2. Older diabetics lose their sense of pain. As a result, they injure their feet. Sometimes they can’t even tell they are having a heart attack, as happened with Dr. C’s father-in-law.

These are only examples of good that comes from pain. We are too limited to know all of the good that comes, but one thing we know is that,

“Pain is God’s megaphone to the world.” said CS Lewis

He is right. A megaphone makes voices louder. Haven’t you noticed that people who ignore God, often speak to him when they suffer or face disaster? They ask, “Why God?” Pain helps them realize that life is not all fun and games. It helps prepare them for eternity, which is for their ultimate good.

Awareness of daily risks and the finality of death should keep us all humble and close to God.

(Note: See also Dr. C’s presentation in the videos and study guides for the Lesson on Suffering and Thanksgiving, and the Lesson on Human Relationships.)

Stumbling Block 2: Anger with God

Often people who don’t believe in God are angry with him. Does that make sense? How can we be angry with someone who doesn’t exist?

Possibly they are angry over suffering or wars they have experienced or observed. Perhaps their anger comes from a deep-seated belief that God actually does exist, and they hold him responsible for things they don’t like. When people are angry at God, you can ask:

Are you angry because God will judge people? or because he hasn’t judged them yet?

Let them talk about it. Perhaps together you can find the source of the anger. That can help heal it. God was there when the tragedy happened. He cared.

“For I the Lord, love justice; I hate robbery and iniquity. In my faithfulness I will reward…”

“In all their distress, he too was distressed.” Isaiah 63:9 & 61:8

Stumbling Block 3: Disappointment with God

Muslims might become disappointed in the character of God/Allah that they have come to know in Islam. Syrian Wafa Sultan, our guest in another lesson, says it with the title of her book, A God Who Hates.

Others quit believing in God when prayer wasn’t answered: for example, healing of a loved one, a bad grade, loss of promotion, or a disappointing love life.

We must realize that we cannot make God be what we want. We cannot say,

“If he is real, God will be the way I want him to be.”

In many religions, ceremonies and gifts are essentially bribes to get something from the god. In contrast, Christians are in relationship with God. That means:

  • We pray for what we think is best. But we must trust him to do what is best, even if we can’t see it.
  • It is important to believe God is good. Otherwise we won’t trust him if we are disappointed. “Give thanks to the Lord for he is good” is the most common phrase in the Bible for a reason. (Romans 8:28, Psalm 118:1)

Disappointment is also a reason that Christians, including those from Muslim background, fall away from Christian faith.

Examples of disappointment: God didn’t do what expected

  1. A woman who had been a “good Christian” from her heart since childhood was surprised that life turned out to be so hard. She thought that if she obeyed the Bible, life would be smooth.
  2. Muslims who become Christians have often seen many answers to Christians’ prayers. They can be surprised to find that God is not obligated to answer our prayers the way we want. One said,

“I don’t pray. God doesn’t answer my prayers anymore.”

The solution is a better understanding of what a relationship between God and his follower means. If you find this is the problem with an atheist or backslidden Christian, try to help them through it.

Stumbling Block 4: Gender Issues

In the past few decades various kinds of gender issues have become major stumbling blocks to believing in God.

The originally wholesome movement for women’s rights, in which true Christian women have participated, has been largely derailed into promoting abortion and immorality. Now, women’s movements find the Bible, and the men who claim to represent it, unfair to women. These issues become of top importance to the women’s movements and other concerns, like the existence of a moral God, become of lesser importance.

(Note: Dr. C lectures on how the curse of Genesis 3 has influenced the treatment of women, and can be broken.)

Likewise, the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) movement. It has gained such popularity that even those who do not fit within those categories support it. Even though the Bible is clear that everyone sins, because the Bible mentions homosexuality and other forms of sexual immorality, the movement feels especially condemned.

Both these movements paint Bible-believers as intolerant and judgmental. Their anger at Christians, and the very thought of God, is not based on reason. It is an emotional distaste at the possible existence of a force which might disapprove of what they value.

The irony is that, atheists tend to be materialists – believing only in what is physical. Yet, although physical bodies tell people that they are male or female, LGBT “sense” that they are something else. That sense is not physical. “Cognitive dissonance” results, which means that their feelings are at odds with their beliefs. They believe they are only physical, yet they have a sense that it is not so.

Talking about the cognitive dissonance of physical evidence versus gender feeling could potentially help them understand their situation better and be more open to the gospel.

(Note: read more about cognitive dissonance in the Study Guide for Lesson on Looking for Truth in World Religions.)

Do not Covet

Wanting something that we don’t have, or can’t be – like changing our sex – could be covetous: breaking the 10th commandment. Coveting hurts us by bringing dissatisfaction, and misbehaviors. We are the happiest, when we learn to be content with who we are and what we have.

Stumbling Block 5: Race Issues

Resentment against races that have been strongly identified with God, can be a stumbling block to believing in God or becoming Christian for those not of that race. In this case they misdirect their attention to sins or errors of the people they dislike. We have heard this mainly against white Caucasians and Jews, from blacks, East Indians, and Caucasians.

You could devote time to defending those they attack. But it is better in the long run to point out that there are nominal believers and imperfect followers, then redirect their eyes to Jesus. In him there is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female. (Hebrews 12:2,3; Galatians 3:28)

Stumbling Block 6: Personal Preference

We all have personal preferences that impact what we believe in the subjective sense. For example, Dr. C and Luke do want to know the truth. They believe the evidence is much stronger for the existence of God than not. But even if the evidence were only equal, rather than godless emptiness,

  • Luke would prefer to believe that there is a God, the high judge who will eventually straighten out all injustices.
  • Dr. C would prefer to believe that there is a God, the loving Creator who made everything and cares about it.

The positive side of subjective we discussed above under “The God Gene” as the missing puzzle piece. On the negative side of subjective however, some atheists, including scientists, have admitted that they simply prefer not to believe in God. With this underlying motive, they accept the arguments against the existence of God, rather than the evidence for God, even if it is stronger.

  • Usually, there is sin in their life that they know goes against what the God of the Bible teaches. Often it is sexual immorality. If they deny that God exists, they feel free to continue living however they want.
  • But perhaps the deeper, underlying fear is the sense of obligation that one would have to their Creator as a Lord if they acknowledged him freely.

Misattribution, is probably involved:

  • Naturalistic processes made the world, not God
  • Their pleasures in life are due to Nature, rather than God
  • A sense that “If I believed in God, I would lose myself and my pleasures.”

Appendix # 3 Causes of Atheism

(Note: This is a continuation from the section above on “Causes of Atheism”)

  1. Islam – see discussion in the main lesson
  2. Biased Education

Those raised in the United States school system will have had the philosophy of atheistic scientific materialism throughout their education.

And what about Christian young people? Studies and personal observations over the past decades have shown a that most of the young people raised in Christian homes leave the faith when they enter college. Why?

  • Almost every class presents the atheistic viewpoint, sometimes ridiculing Christians
  • Young Christians were not adequately trained in apologetics (why to believe the faith). Many cite that their questions were not adequately answered by the church.
  • Inadequate spiritual support in their new environment. There are Christian clubs on campus, but they do not always fit with the students’ schedules. Needing to find a church in their new area, along with all the other duties might seem too much for them.
  1. Shortsightedness

It seems easier for many people to simply go through life ignoring the Big Questions:

Where am I going?      What am I here for?    Where will I go after I die?

Even near the end of life, when you think these questions would be looming, if people have trained their brains to ignore them for so long, even then they do not or cannot, consider what is of ultimate importance.

  1. Upbringing

“Give me a child until he is seven and I will show you the man.”

This popular saying, originally by Aristotle and commonly quoted, emphasizes the power of the first years of life in making us who we are. If you are a parent, or other adult who has raised children, you have probably already sensed this.

A child’s mind and emotions are like a blank computer system. What we say, and how we treat them create the connections that will program how they act and feel for the rest of their lives. Here are two models where atheism can be part of a person since childhood.

Model #1 Good Family

In this setting, a child’s family is relatively “normal,” meaning providing security and shelter for the child and making them feel loved. If the parents are atheists, and teach that worldview, it is likely that the child will simply absorb the view from their parents and become atheist – unless some crisis or other situation intervenes (for example a romantic relationship, a challenging friend, etc.).

Model #2 Deprived of Care

The best example of this is called Reactive Attachment Disorder (known as RAD). Classical examples are Romanian orphanages and the American foster care settings.

Infants have a Satisfaction Cycle of:

need – crying – provision – satisfaction

Infants’ physical needs include food and physical comfort (diaper changing), and psychological needs like gentle touch, and comforting speech or singing. There needs to be at least one person that they can attach to in the belief that they care. If an infant’s needs are met, their brain becomes programmed that someone cares. Life is good.

Physical abuse is very damaging. But in the long run, it has been found that neglect is worse. Children who suffer with no one who cares, especially early on, learn to trust no one. Even God.

Orphanage setting: An infant in the orphanage setting can easily be deprived of provision and affection during its very important first year of life. Dr. C has studied and experienced the results of this first hand.

Foster Care: With more and more disturbed families, drug abuse and crime, the number of children in foster care is increasing. In the foster care setting, children are placed in a family that is not their own on a temporary basis, usually by court order.

Often these temporary situations drag on for years in uncertainty, while the court decides what to do with the child. As a result, these children end up moving from foster home to foster home. In short stays they don’t have time to bond to a caregiver. Perhaps as bad or worse, if they do attach then must leave the foster home, they often feel that the caregiver no longer cares, even if they do. As a result, they grow up feeling disconnected and unloved – unattached emotionally.

Sadly worse, some foster families are not good. They take in children not as a calling, but for the support money. Neglect, abuse, and even sexual molestation can occur. In this setting, children deeply sense that no one cares for them, and may actually live in fear.

Absent Father: It is said that we attribute to God the attitudes of our earthly fathers. As more and more children are raised without earthly fathers, we can expect negative attitudes about God, and denial of his existence. A look into the background of prominent atheists has shown that many of them lacked a caring father.

We have also found that the absence or attitude of Muslims’ fathers impacts how they think of God. In some Islamic families the father is distant or harsh. Polygamous fathers may support more than one family, stretching his time and resources. Or the father may have died in one of the many Islamic conflicts across the globe. Or, as with one case we know, the divorced father, who gets custody in Islam, removed the child from its mother and put him in the care of the rival wife, who neglected him.

RESULT: When a child is neglected to the point that they believe that no one cares, negative behaviors emerge. They feel that they must fend for themselves. No one else matters. God, if he exists at all, cannot be trusted. If no earthly parent cared for them, how can they believe that a heavenly parent cares?

HEALING: Attachment disorder can be repaired. It takes time and special training in psychology of the disorder since the “unconditional love” of usual Christian parenting does not work. Coming to understand that Christians are adopted into God’s family can also help heal the wound. (Romans 8:15-17)

Appendix # 4 Developing a Personal Apologetic Testimony

Note: Similar material is in the study guide for “Lesson on Why Believe the Bible?”

A PAT is a Personal Apologetic Testimony

In the New Testament, 1 Peter 3:15 says, “If you are asked about your Christian hope, always be ready to explain it.”

When teaching apologetics, Dr. Cynthia encourages participants to, “Develop a PAT and get it down pat.” A PAT explains the reasons why you believe what you believe, and how they impact your life. It’s a great tool for all Christians to develop, because it gives us an opportunity to reflect on the reasons for our faith, and to strengthen it.

(Note to English learners: to get something “down pat,” means to learn it well.)

Today’s lesson gives you a good opportunity to think about the reasons that you personally believe in God, and given the opportunity, how to express them to others.

In Spirit and in Truth

In the study guide above on “Does God Exist?” we spoke about objective and subjective information: facts and feelings. We pointed out that human beings are physical, but are in the image of God and have a consciousness.

In John 4, Jesus told us that God wants us to worship him both objectively and subjectively – in spirit and in truth. We think that a good PAT will bring both to your listeners. The objective facts will prevent your listeners from discounting your testimony as simply emotional. But ending with a bit of subjective testimony could touch their spirit as well.

How to Prepare a PAT

Since today’s topic is “Does God Exist?” let’s focus a PAT on why you believe in God. Consider, what are your favorite objective arguments for God? They might be ones we covered in the lesson, or others.

3 Steps to a PAT:

  1. Objective: Pick 3 reasons for the existence of God that are most convincing to you
  2. Subjective: Pick one reason that you personally feel God is real
  3. Combine: Practice combining them in ways that would:
    1. appeal to the needs of different people you might know or likely meet
    2. could be varied in length from 2 to 15 minutes

A PAT is as individual as you are. There is no right or wrong PAT. What we want to encourage is that you think about some realreasons for why you believe in God – something besides “I believe because my pastor, or Iman, told me so,” or, “I believe there is no God, because then I can do whatever I want.”

Maybe your PAT is complex, with many points, and might even include some of the evidence we share in this or other study guides.

Perhaps your PAT is simply, “From what I’ve seen in the world, nothing comes from nothing.” Or, “If my old watch falls apart, I think it will take more than shaking it in a bag for a million years to put it back together. So I don’t believe we could have the universe without an intelligent designer.”

Introducing Yourself

People consider the source of who is speaking. If you already know who you are speaking to, and they respect you, you will not need to introduce yourself. Otherwise, if you think that your background contributes to your PAT, you might want to introduce yourself. Present yourself in a way that naturally leads in to your PAT.

Know your Audience

Be sensitive to the needs of whom you are speaking to. Your PAT should vary in emphasis, depending on whom you are sharing it with a Muslim, an atheist, or a child.

Some people have big “heart needs” and will want to hear more about how God showed his love to you. On the other hand, testimony based simply on feelings or a miracle will not hold up to the attacks of someone who wants objective facts. They could say,

“Well, you can believe that if it makes you feel good, but I don’t feel it. It isn’t real to me.”

People usually make decisions based on how they feel, so ending with something that touches their spirit is a good idea. Feelings are real, but unstable. We need stable faith based on facts; one that is not blind, and extends beyond feelings. Spirit and Truth.

Example of a PAT: Dr. C

Since Dr. C dealt with death on a daily basis in her medical work, her PAT explains how she cannot deny that we are going to die. Since this is so, why we are here? Where do we go after we die? These are questions of the utmost importance. Then she explains to her listeners the scientific and other reasons that she believes in God, and the salvation presented in the Bible.

But don’t feel that you need to be a doctor or a scientist to have a PAT. Everyone has reasons for what they believe. A PAT is just recognizing what your reasons are and learning to express them.

(Note: Some of you might recognize that a PAT uses the classical Logos, Pathos, Ethos form of argument found to be persuasive since the days of antiquity.)


© Copyright by Christian from Muslim, 2020. Permission granted for personal and study group copying only.

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What Does Messiah Mean?

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A point of confusion between religions is that they often use the same words, but with different meanings. Misunderstandings can result. In this video Luke Price and Dr. C discuss the different meanings of the word “messiah” between the Jews, Muslims, and Christians.

In the Bible, the word “messiah” in general refers to someone who is anointed, as with oil, for a special purpose. So there is not only one messiah. But beyond that, there are many prophecies of a specific, special Messiah. It is this Messiah that Jews, Christians, and Muslims understand differently.

The Jewish understanding of the Messiah is primarily a political savior who will deliver the Jewish people from suppression everywhere. He will make them the most honored on earth. Since Jesus did not do this, current Jewish leaders do not consider that he can be the promised Messiah.

Christians accept that the Messiah will one day be a political ruler. However, they recognize that the prophecies of the suffering messiah to point to Jesus. They also understand from Jesus’ teaching that he came primarily as a spiritual messiah, to save people from their sins, and to teach the world how to live in harmony and love.

Muslims consider the Messiah to be Jesus Christ, as the Christians do. However, it is not clear exactly what the Quran, or they, mean by that. The closest is probably the idea when they say that “Jesus was sent only to the Jews.” They add to that, “Mohammed came for the whole world!” We disagree with both these claims.

The Micah and Matthew Controversy

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By Dr. Cynthia and Luke, December 2021

The Micah and Matthew Controversy is important in the context of Muslim evangelism because when attacking Christian beliefs, more and more Muslims are quoting Jewish apologists.

In this video and study guide, Dr. Cynthia and Luke Price discuss the controversy, and explain why the Christian interpretation is correct.

Traditionally, Christians consider the birth of Jesus Christ in Bethlehem to be a fulfillment of the messianic prophecy in Micah chapter 5 verse 2. Because this association is so strong, to deny that Jesus is the prophesied Messiah, Jewish apologists not only deny the association, but accuse Matthew of corruption and even treachery.

Micah 5:2 says:

“But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are small among the clans of Judah, out of you will come for me one who will be ruler over Israel, whose origins are from of old, from ancient times.”

Luke points out that the straightforward reading of the passage sounds like a special ruler will be born in Bethlehem. However, Jewish apologists claim that even though David is not mentioned, since David was born in Bethlehem the passage is indirectly referring to him. It means only that the Messiah will be a descendant of David. This downplays the significance of Jesus’ birth in Bethlehem, and opens the way for them to claim that any future leader is the Messiah, regardless of where he is born.

Luke points out that if the Jews are correct that the Messiah only descends from David, and need not be born in Bethlehem, that fits with Jesus too: one of his titles is “Son of David.” So Christians are OK with either interpretation, although we believe and prefer that Bethlehem is the designated birthplace.

Luke tells us that in the picturesque wording of the Hebrew, the origin of the Messiah is depicted as if a spring from the ancient times is flowing into the Messiah ( from the word Mowtsah).

The expression, “from ancient times” would seem indicate very far in the past. David was only 300 years before Micah, so he does not seem as likely a candidate for the origin of the Messiah as “the Ancient of Days,” as God himself is referred to in the Bible, such as in Daniel chapter 7.

Matthew chapter 2, verses 1-6 explain how the Micah prophecy is fulfilled:

“After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east arrived in Jerusalem, asking, “Where is the One who has been born King of the Jews? We saw His star in the east and have come to worship Him.”

When King Herod heard this, he was disturbed, and all Jerusalem with him. And when he had assembled all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he asked them where the Christ was to be born.

“In Bethlehem in Judea,” they replied, “for this is what the prophet has written:

‘But you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah,
are by no means least among the rulers of Judah,
for out of you will come a ruler
who will be the shepherd of My people Israel.’”

Here is Micah 5:4:

“He will stand and shepherd his flock in the strength of the LORD, in the majesty of the name of the LORD his God. And they will live securely, for then his greatness will reach to the ends of the earth.”

If you compare the Micah passage to the Matthew quotation, you will see that they are not identical. The quotation combines verses 2 and 4 together, skipping over the end of verse 2 and all of verse 3. Why is that? The accusers ascribe sinister motives to it; that Matthew tries to “rewrite” the Bible and take out parts he does not like.

Dr. Cynthia has an easy explanation. She is a writer and speaker. Often for the sake of clarity and brevity she will shorten someone’s quotation, or a story. Certainly you will have seen that or done it yourself when relating something that happened.

In this case, the portion quoted is what directly answers the question of the wise men: where was the Messiah to be born? The quote mentions the location, and the function of the Messiah, in verse 4. It does not, nor does it need to quote the entire passage. Matthew includes the portion of the passage that was most pertinent to the Wise Men.

Dr. C says that from the passage there is no reason to assume that the entire passage was not read to Herod and the Wise Men. Matthew was not under any obligation to quote it all.

The second important point is that at the time, the chief priests and scribes had no problem with accepting that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem. Their traditional interpretation fits with the Christian understanding. Most of the early Christian believers were Jews. We are told in the book of Acts that many priests became Christians. The fulfillment of this passage could have been part of it.

Much later, unwilling to accept Jesus as the Messiah, some Jews deny that Bethlehem was to be the Messiah’s birthplace.

The third point on Matthew is a defense against the accusation that Matthew intentionally cut out the words that say, “whose origins are from of old, from ancient times,” because they did not fit with Jesus.

On the contrary, we strongly feel that this had nothing to do with the quote. Matthew does present Jesus as God, and this phrase supports that. However, the point in chapter 2 is to answer the question of where the Messiah was to be born. Matthew might not have wanted to divert the topic to Jesus being God at that point.

Another reason for Matthew’s condensing the verses is that he could be quoting something 5th hand. The quote was passed from: the scroll, to the priests and scribes, to Herod, to the Wise Men, to Mary and Joseph, and then to Matthew.

There are two other accusations against Matthew chapter 2 that we did not discuss, but which are good to know about and be prepared to defend:

  1. Not Born in BethlehemThis claim is that there is no record outside of the Bible that Jesus was born in Bethlehem, so it did not happen. They say that Matthew simply invented Jesus’ birth there in order to have a fulfilled prophecy.

This accusation is called “an argument from silence,” meaning to records speaking to it. But we must remember that “an absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.”

Bethlehem is mentioned in two independent sources, Matthew and Luke. Bethlehem fits with the prophecy of the Messiah’s birthplace.

The gospels tell us that Jesus himself is the one who told his disciples which prophecies he fulfilled. Matthew was his disciple. This interpretation would have come to Matthew from Jesus. (Luke 24:27)

  1. Written to Insult the JewsWe were surprised to hear a Jewish apologist claims that the entire story about Wise Men coming from the east was included by Matthew to insult the Jews. They say that he maliciously included it to show that the rest of the world recognized Jesus as the Messiah, but not the Jews.

This interpretation of the passage never occurred to us, or any other Christian we know of. It is unjustifiably reading an unkind motive to not only smear Matthew, but to keep people from taking the passage seriously.

But in fact, it is incredibly easy to disprove that Matthew is claiming that Jews did not accept Jesus as the Messiah.

Around the time of Jesus’ birth, Jews already accepted him as the Messiah. For example, we find in Luke chapter 2:

    • the shepherds who adored Jesus in the stable
    • and Anna and Simeon, temple workers at his dedication

And in Matthew’s very next chapter, chapter 3, he has the Jewish prophet John the Baptist (Yahia in Islam), proclaiming that the grown Jesus is the Messiah.

In summary, we hope that this discussion will not only bring you into deeper understanding of these two passages, but also enable you to defend them, and possibly inspire in you an even greater sense of wonder into the miracles surrounding Jesus Messiah’s birth.

Bible References:

  • Micah 5:2,4
  • Matthew 2,3
  • Daniel 7:13
  • Luke 2:1-38 & 24:27


  1. Read Micah 5:2 in your Bible. To whom does it sound to you that the passage refers?
  2. How are Micah 5:2 and Matthew chapter 2 traditionally related?
  3. What is the Christian interpretation of these two passages?
  4. How do Jewish apologists try to deny that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem?
  5. How did the chief priests and the scribes at the time of Jesus’ birth interpret the Bethlehem prophecy?
  6. Do you find it acceptable that Matthew shortens the Micah passage, putting verses 2 and 4 together?
    • Why might Matthew have done that?
    • What common practice does Dr. C say Matthew could be doing?
    • Have you ever done anything like that?
  1. What qualities does Micah 5:2,4 claim that the Messiah will have?
  2. How did Jesus’ disciples know which prophecies referred to him?
  3. What unkind and untrue things do some Jewish apologists say about Matthew?
  4. It is good when we have outside documentation for something that the Bible claims, like the way the Cyrus Cylinder confirms that King Cyrus let Jews return to Jerusalem and worship their God.
    • What about passages that do not have outside historical documentation. Is it needed to be sure that something that the Bible says happened?
  1. EXTRA CREDIT: Dr. C uses the debate term “genetic fallacy” to describe doubting the truth of someone’s point because it supports what they believe. This is a helpful thing to know about and look for in apologetics. We can’t assume someone is wrong simply because they believe it; but sometimes a person’s motivation can help us understand why they would make unsupported claims.
    • What does Dr. C say about Jewish apologists now wanting the Messiah to be born in Bethlehem that might be “genetic fallacy?”
    • How do the Jewish apologists accusations against Matthew fit with a genetic fallacy against him?

FREE Resource

Download FREE PDF Version: The Micah and Matthew Controversy

The Place of Culture

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Whether we realize it or not, all of us are influenced by culture. That means that everything around us – our countries, schools and families – become part of who we are. Culture influences what we believe and the way we practice it. Even Christianity has a different flavor in Middle Eastern and America. And because some cultures are so strongly identified with religion, changing religion can seem unthinkable… or even fatal.

Every culture has strengths and weaknesses: some aspects fit with the Bible’s teachings and please God, but some don’t. So, what place should culture have in our lives?

CHRISTIANS: aim to live more in tune with God, his word, and his kingdom, than with the culture that surrounds us.

MUSLIMS, Buddhists, Sikhs and others: look for what is true and follow it. Don’t let fear or cultural pride keep you from seeking God’s light and finding his salvation.

Apologetics: Short Answers and Turn-arounds

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Questions Muslims Ask: In this video Dr. Cynthia encourages Christians to take some of the questions and accusations we get as Christians from Muslims and learn to turn them by giving a short answer that is very succinct and to the point. Short answers and turn-arounds are powerful apologetical tools to share the Gospel while encouraging Muslims to look at their questions from a different point of view.

Apologetics: Muslim Misuse of the Bible

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Apologetics and Polemics: What do we do when Muslims misuse the Scriptures? More and more now we find them trying to convince Christians that the foundational teachings of their faith are not even in the Bible. What is the Christian’s response to that? Dr. Cynthia encourages Christians to be patient with their Muslim friends while helping them to correctly extract and interpret what a biblical text says and means.

Apologetics: Context is Key

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Apologetics and Polemics: What do we do when Muslims quote to us Bible verses out of context? Context is key to understanding what the Bible teaches. Dr. Cynthia has found that if we encourage our Muslim friends to read the Gospels for themselves before they draw conclusions, this helps them accept the truth of the Bible and its gospel message.

Apologetics: Object Lessons

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Examples, stories, and object lessons help simplify difficult concepts. Muslims have been taught that Christians are wrong about aspects of God, Jesus, and the trinity. Dr. Cynthia has found that if we explain these concepts simply, sometimes using object lessons, Muslims can come to understand them. This helps them accept the truth of the Bible and its gospel message.

Street Apologetics: Short Answers to Hard Questions

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Christian from Muslim Livestream Event with CIRA International

Join Al Fadi and Dr. Cynthia as they discuss some techniques in using short answers to address tough apologetic questions by Muslims!

CIRA International – Introducing Muslims to the Gospel of Jesus Christ

Al Fadi, former Wahabbi Muslim from Saudi Arabia and the founder of CIRA International: The Center for Islamic Research and Awareness. He is the researcher, editor, writer, and translator for numerous ministries, including “Answering Islam” and runs an outreach ministry designed for non-Muslim and Christians.